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Books I am currently reading to satisfy my curiosity and increase my understanding of myself, the people around me, and the world at large:
On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society by Dave Grossman
This is an engrossing look at the psychology of killing from ancient times through the Vietnam War. According to Grossman, the vast majority of soldiers in combat (not just in the military, but actually in combat) have never killed and have never even fired their weapons at an enemy soldier. This is due to a healthy psychological barrier. Starting in Vietnam, the U.S. began using a new type of combat training that makes firing a weapon more instinctual, undercutting the natural psychological barrier. As a result, firing rates have gone up dramatically. This has implications for our military, as well as our law enforcement. An increase in someone's willingness and ability to shoot must come hand in hand with increased ethical and situational awareness training.
Grossman also addresses PTSD and the support structures that make PTSD less likely, and the book is worth reading for that section alone, particularly if you have a family member in the military or law enforcement.
On Killing is not without flaw. First, where are the sources? Some of the data feels questionable and Grossman does little to acknowledge critics. Also, Grossman should stop with his area of expertise (killology), and not foray into cultural exposition. After some hyperbole about Hollywood and video games in the introduction, I read the rest of the book with one eyebrow raised. Still, it is a fascinating read and will introduce most readers to a new subject they know little about.
Man's Search for Himself by Rollo May
Boredom. Anxiety. Fear. Loneliness. These are characteristic symptoms of the modern self. As western culture shed cultural rituals and traditions after the dissonance of WW2, we found our orientation towards meaning shaken. The ancient ways gave us stability and a sense of affirmation that we were doing something meaningful with our lives. But the cultural revolutions that happened in the early 20th century have left us to seek and create our own meaning (this is one of the things we will talk about in a coaching session). Rollo May wrote this insightful book in 1953, but it is prophetic in the way it foreshadows the cultural revolutions of the 1960s and 70s, and later, postmodernism.
Rollo May (d. 1994) was one of the fathers of existentialist psychology and was incredibly well read. This book draws on philosophy (kierkegaard), psychology (Freud), Greek myth, and theology (May earned a degree at Union Theological Seminary and was a pastor before becoming a psychologist. He was also lifelong friends with influential theologian Paul Tillich). While this book is clearly dated (some of the psychological trends he describes are more pertinent to my parents' generation), nevertheless, it is invaluable for the insights it gives into the making of our national ethos, and the evolution of our self-perception. Reading May, I find myself stimulated and challenged to become more fully myself, and I have to thank my wife for introducing me to one of her favorite psychologists.
Reading these books side by side has been illuminating. Grossman is concerned with a mechanical question: How are humans, who are naturally reticent to kill, made into more effective killing machines? His answer has to do primarily with unconscious conditioning. May, on the other hand, sets the reader on a journey that frees the person from unconscious influences to move towards a complete and independent self that is full of wonder and intention. Together, these books lead to intriguing questions for reflection: How does the soldier, or the person conditioned to a response for the sake of survival, become a whole person? What is the proper place of authority, the kind of authority that asks to be obeyed without question, in a mature humanity?
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Instagram is the kind of success story entrepreneurs dream about. Founded in 2010 by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, it gained over 100 million users within its first two years, and today has grown to more than six times that number.
If you are interested in founding your own tech startup, here are 10 takeaways from Instagram that can help you succeed:
1. Learn to forecast the future. Ask, "What will people do with this technology that nobody expects right now?" When Instagram was founded, most people were carrying camera phones in their pockets, but there was no great way to share the photos. Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger found a way to make photo sharing easy.
2. Entrepreneurs don't always invent something new, sometimes they develop a new way to use a technology that already exists. As Kevin put it in his interview with Guy Raz, "Everyone knew you could take photos with your phone, they just didn't know the photos could be interesting." Can you think of a technology people are already using, but not fully implementing? Figure out how to increase implementation, then monetize it!
3. Sometimes a little legwork pays off. Cash was in short supply in Instagram's early days. On one occasion, Systrom and Krieger heard that some investors were having a meeting and showed up with a working demo. The investors were so impressed with the product, that they signed on immediately.
4. If an investor tells you to change something, change it right away! Meeting with an interested investor creates a sense of energy and movement. If you wait to make your next move, energy will wane and the investor may think you are not serious and is likely to pull their backing.
5. Don't ask why people are not using your product/company, ask why they continue using it! Loyal customers are worth ten times more than new customers. They are your brand advocates, and are likely to do some of your marketing for you. A significant portion of your energy should be focused on satisfying and retaining these customers.
6.Figure out a way to make people feel better, and your invention will be a success. In the language of economists, people consume a product or service because it increases their "utility." That is, the satisfaction a consumer derives from your product, minus the price they paid for it, is greater than the satisfaction they would receive from another product. Instagram wasn't the only photo sharing app launched in 2010, but it was the first to use filters well. Filters make your photos look better, and that makes you feel better.
7. Ask friends and family for input on your ideas. Getting outside input is one of the quickest ways to leap over a hurdle. And friends and family are the easiest people to get feedback from. Kevin's wife was the one who suggested adding filters to Instagram, and she came up with the idea while vacationing in Mexico. (Maybe I should add another tip: Work hard, but take a vacation before you burn out!)
8. Innovation can happen in the way a product is shared. Instagram was the first app to allow open sharing, so you can follow people without waiting for them to accept you as a "friend." This was another reason for the app's success.
9. When you make a mistake (and you will), apologize and be transparent. Remember the whole fiasco about "Instagram now owns the photos you post, and will use them in advertising?" According to Systrom, that misunderstanding occurred because they didn't put enough effort into writing their terms of acceptance. Instead of blowing off critics or hiding it, they apologized for their mistake and moved on.
10. It takes grit to succeed. When the stars align and your product works and you have investors who back you, getting your product to market is still going to take sweat, sleepless nights, and a strong desire to succeed. This is what it means to be an entrepreneur.
How about you? Do you have any tips for success? Share them below, and be sure to follow me on Twitter.
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Organizational change doesn't occur because new data comes to light, or a new analysis was run, revealing a problem. Organizational change occurs when emotions and feelings are changed.
How does that happen? Through personal stories and out-of-the-box experiences.
If you need to bring about change in your organization, but you're feeling stuck as to how you can make that emotional appeal, try using Creative Problem Solving (CPS) techniques.
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A good manager seeks out and listens to complaints.
Complaints reveal priorities. When someone complains about a problem in the workplace, what they are really revealing is something that matters to them.
However, it's not enough to just listen to complaints and respond. A good manager is able to help people turn their complaints into commitments. In addressing this subject, Kegan and Lahey use the example of a person who complains that they are kept out of the loop on important projects. Turning this into a commitment resulted in the statement "I believe in open and candid communication."
Next, a good manager encourages people to ask how their OWN actions contribute to the problem. Phrasing it in a positive manner, "What are you doing or not doing, that is keeping your commitment from being more fully realized?" (Kegan and Lahey, 87).
Lastly, a good manager helps people overcome hesitation about making personal changes. "If you imagine doing the opposite of the undermining behavior, do you detect in yourself discomfort, worry or vague fear?" "By engaging in this undermining behavior, what worrisome outcome are you committed to preventing?" (88)
Managers who respond to complaints in this way will unlock the potential of their employees, and their company.
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Sometimes the act of creation is just as important as what is created. This is certainly true when it comes to creating value, vision, and mission statements. You can't outsource it to consultants, or hand it off to someone on your team. In the process of setting the course for your company, you yourself are forged into something new.
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When asked to give feedback or evaluate a project, it is best not to think of yourself as a judge, offering irrefutable sentences, or a prosecutor, trying to build a foolproof argument, or even a defendant, who backs up every statement with graphs and charts. Instead, think of yourself as a witness, giving a "clear, specific picture" of what you observe (adapted from Peter Block).
Speaking as an observant witness rather than playing one of these other roles is challenging at first, but when you have mastered this discipline, you will find listening ears where before you encountered resistance.
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Books I am currently reading, in no particular order:
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Don't get caught up in your weaknesses. Instead, let them be the source of your strength.
Take Japan, for example (where I spent two weeks this summer). An island nation, they have few natural resources and limited space. Instead of floundering, they pioneered just-in-time production so they wouldn't have to use costly warehouse to hold goods until they were needed. The result? They leapfrogged the competition.
So what are your weaknesses, and how are you leveraging them into strengths?
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You don't need a groundbreaking idea to be "innovative." Some of the most innovative and transformative ideas already exist and are being implemented at the fringes of your organization/business/culture, they just haven't been fully pursued yet.
A Creative Problem Solving session can help management access these innovative ideas and implement them company wide.
Of course, if you are consistently practicing the art of Humble Inquiry, there is a great chance you are already aware of these transformative ideas at the fringe of your organization... and now it is just a matter of implementing them successfully.
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One of the simplest mistakes leadership often makes is failing to properly identify the difference between an ADAPTIVE CHALLENGE and a TECHNICAL PROBLEM.
The solution to a technical problem lies in authority and expertise: Leadership simply tells people what to do, and it is usually something that the organization is already supposed to be doing.
The solution to an adaptive challenge, however is quite different. Adaptive challenges are solved by a change in "people's priorities, beliefs, habits, and loyalties." A top down, authoritative prescription won't fix this kind of problem, and will likely lead to more confusion and dysfunction.
Of course, some problems are a combination of the two. Brian Leavy uses the illustration of a heart surgery: The surgery itself is a technical solution provided by the surgeon. But the root of the problem is adaptive, and requires the person with the bad heart to stop smoking and start exercising, which will only occur through an internal change.